Romania - Demographics
Romania has a population of about 19 million inhabitants, of which more than 50% lives in municipalities and cities. Population density is 79.9 people/square km, at country level. Ethnic distribution of the Romanian population is the following: 90.6 % Romanians 6.7 % Hungarians and 2.7% Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, and Russians (Census, 2012). Romanian citizens' age distribution is the following> 15,9% are 0-14 years old, 12,3% are 15-24 years old, 55,7% are 25-64 years old and 16,1% are 64 + years old. Life expectancy in the Romanian population has increased with about 4 years compared with the year 1970. (Census, 2012) (INSSE, 2012). In 2012, the employment rate of working age population (15-64 years) was 59.5% and the unemployment rate 7.0%. The employment rate of the population aged 20-64 years was 63.8% at a distance of 6.2% compared to the national target of 70% set in the Europe 2020 (INSSE, 2012).
Health status in Romanian population is poor compared with the other European countries. The average life expectancy in Romania was 72.7 years in 2006 (69.2 years for men and 76.2 years for women), six years shorter than the European Union (EU) average - 78.5 years in 2005 and seven years shorter than the average for the EU Member States prior to May 2004 - 79.7 years in 2005. Infant and maternal mortalities are among the highest in the European Region despite a large decline in maternal mortality since 1990. In 2006, there were 13.91 infant deaths per 100 000 live births, and 15.49 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. Overall, in Romania, the most important causes of death are cardiovascular diseases (62.1% of all deaths in 2006), cancers (17.6%), digestive diseases (5.5%) traumatisms, injuries and poisoning (4.9%) and respiratory diseases (4.9%). Romania has one of the highest incidences of cardiovascular diseases in the European Region (Vladescu, Scintee, & Olsavszky, 2008).
Regarding the Romanian population aged 11 to 15 years old, the following indicators are relevant for the assessment of the health status and the adoption of healthy or risky behaviors: 14% of 11 years old girls and 21% of 11 years old boys report they are overweight or obese according to body mass index; 20% of 11 years old girls and 32% of 11 years old boys reporting at least one hour of moderate-vigorous physical activity daily compared with 7% of 15 years old girls and 16% of 15 years old boys; 64% of 11 years old girls and 65% of 11 years old boys reporting they watch television for two or more hours daily on weekdays. (Currie, et al., 2012).